Pope Paul VI begins this letter by urging greater efforts for justice and noting the duties of local churches to re- spond to specific situations. The Pope then discusses a wide variety of new social problems which stem from ur- banization. These issues include women, youth, and the “new poor.” Paul VI next treats modern aspirations and ideas, especially liberalism and Marxism. He stresses the need to ensure equality and the right of all to participate
in society. He concludes this letter by encouraging all Christians to reflect on their contemporary situations, apply Gospel principles, and take political action when appropriate.