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4 JULY 2023 





On July 4th, 2023, from 9 to 10 a. m., a side-event to the 53rd Ses­sion of the Unit­ed Nation Human Right Coun­cil took place at the Palais des Nations in Gene­va. The event was orga­nized by the Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta in col­lab­o­ra­tion with Car­i­tas Inter­na­tion­alis and Car­i­tas France and the title was “Non-pun­ish­ment of Vic­tims of Human Traf­fick­ing: Enhanc­ing Pro­tec­tion of Victims”. 

Sev­er­al Per­ma­nent Mis­sions to the Unit­ed Nations co-spon­sored the event: Cos­ta Rica, Poland, Roma­nia, Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta, Great Britain, Domini­can Republic.

As we know Human traf­fick­ing is a grave vio­la­tion of human rights, affect­ing more then 50 mil­lion of indi­vid­u­als world­wide. Vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing often face mul­ti­ple forms of abuse, exploita­tion, and trau­ma. It is cru­cial to estab­lish a com­pre­hen­sive frame­work that not only sup­ports vic­tims but also pre­vents their pun­ish­ment or crim­i­nal­iza­tion for the crimes they were forced to com­mit. Twen­ty-three years after the Paler­mo Pro­to­col (Unit­ed Nations Pro­to­col to Pre­vent, Sup­press and Pun­ish Traf­fick­ing in Per­sons, espe­cial­ly Women, and Chil­dren), the scourge of human traf­fick­ing is far from being defeated.

This event host­ed sev­er­al pro­fes­sion­als who dis­cussed the top­ic from dif­fer­ent aspects:

  • Michel Veuthey (Mod­er­a­tor), Ambas­sador of the Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta to mon­i­tor and com­bat traf­fick­ing in persons
  • Geneviève Colas, Sec­ours Catholique — Car­i­tas France and COATNET
  • Vir­ginia Gam­ba,Spe­cial Rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the Sec­re­tary-Gen­er­al for Chil­dren in Armed Conflict
  • Patrick Eba,Deputy Direc­tor for Pro­tec­tion, UNHCR
  • Char­lie Lamen­to,N. Per­ma­nent Rep­re­sen­ta­tive for Glob­al Hope Net­work Inter­na­tion­al (GILLP)
  • Olivia Smith,Exec­u­tive Direc­tor of the Caribbean Anti Human Traf­fick­ing Foundation
  • Andrea Salvoni,Act­ing Coor­di­na­tor for Com­bat­ting Traf­fick­ing in Human Beings, OSCE
  • Ena Lucia Mari­a­ca Pachecoand Sil­via De Rosa, Inter­pol

Michel Veuthey



Excel­len­cies, Dis­tin­guished pan­elists, Ladies and Gen­tle­men, Good morn­ing, everyone,

First of all, I would like to express my grat­i­tude to Car­i­tas Inter­na­tion­alis and all the Per­ma­nent Mis­sions that have pro­vid­ed us with their sup­port, in organ­is­ing this side-event. I will keep my remarks brief.

The Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta is com­mit­ted to uphold­ing the prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment of vic­tims of human trafficking.

The Spe­cial Rap­por­teur Prof. Siob­hán Mul­lal­ly empha­sized the impor­tance of the non-pun­ish­ment prin­ci­ple, which was the core of her report to her Human Rights Coun­cil in June 2021 (A/HRC/47/34) and was reaf­firmed in her lat­est Report (A/HRC/53/28, Part XI. The Prin­ci­ple of Non-Pun­ish­ment, para­gr. 41–45).

So rather than detain­ing and pun­ish­ing vic­tims of traf­fick­ing, that we pro­vide them with pro­tec­tion, iden­ti­fy them as vic­tims, and seek to com­bat the ongo­ing impuni­ty for trafficking.

I would now like to give the floor to our first speak­er, Geneviève Colas, Sec­ours Catholique France, co-organ­is­er of this side-event. Geneviève, you have the floor!

Geneviève Colas

Enhance the pro­tec­tion of vic­tims of human trafficking

by apply­ing the prin­ci­ple of non-punishment

Geneviève Colas, Sec­ours Catholique-Car­i­tas France and COATNET glob­al network

1/ In a rights-based approach, strength­en­ing the pro­tec­tion of vic­tims is a necessity

Vic­tims of traf­fick­ing are often con­front­ed with mul­ti­ple forms of abuse and exploita­tion, all togeth­er cre­at­ing trau­ma. It is essen­tial to estab­lish a glob­al frame­work that sup­ports vic­tims while pre­vent­ing them from being pun­ished or crim­i­nalised for the crimes they have been forced to com­mit. Twen­ty-three years after the Paler­mo Pro­to­col, vic­tims of traf­fick­ing are still all too often held respon­si­ble for the unlaw­ful activ­i­ties they have com­mit­ted in the course of their vic­tim­iza­tion. They are also held liable for acces­so­ry or con­sec­u­tive acts: immigration/asylum, admin­is­tra­tive or civ­il offences. Vic­tims of traf­fick­ing are often arrest­ed, charged, pros­e­cut­ed and wrong­ly con­vict­ed for crimes and oth­er ille­gal acts com­mit­ted as vic­tims of traf­fick­ing… while traf­fick­ers escape pun­ish­ment and con­tin­ue to engage in traf­fick­ing activ­i­ties with impuni­ty. This is a fla­grant vio­la­tion of vic­tims’ right to protection.

The prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment is there­fore an essen­tial ele­ment in the pro­tec­tion of vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing and the pre­ven­tion of their fur­ther vic­tim­i­sa­tion. By recog­nis­ing the vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty of vic­tims, encour­ag­ing report­ing, pro­mot­ing reha­bil­i­ta­tion and putting in place com­pre­hen­sive sup­port sys­tems, soci­eties can ensure that vic­tims receive the pro­tec­tion and assis­tance they need to rebuild their lives. Non-pun­ish­ment poli­cies pri­ori­tise the reha­bil­i­ta­tion of vic­tims, giv­ing them access to essen­tial ser­vices such as health­care, coun­selling, edu­ca­tion and voca­tion­al train­ing, enabling them to rebuild their lives.


2/ A few ref­er­ences on the non-pun­ish­ment pro­vi­sions con­tained in sev­er­al inter­na­tion­al and region­al anti-traf­fick­ing instruments

In 2002, in its res­o­lu­tion 55/67, the Unit­ed Nations Gen­er­al Assem­bly invit­ed gov­ern­ments to con­sid­er pre­vent­ing vic­tims of traf­fick­ing from being pros­e­cut­ed for their irreg­u­lar entry or res­i­dence with­in the legal frame­work and in accor­dance with nation­al poli­cies, giv­en that they are vic­tims of exploita­tion. The Office of the Unit­ed Nations High Com­mis­sion­er for Human Rights recog­nised for the first time that traf­fick­ing in per­sons could be aimed at exploit­ing vic­tims by mak­ing them car­ry out ille­gal activ­i­ties. It already indi­cat­ed that vic­tims should there­fore ben­e­fit from pro­tec­tion and not pun­ish­ment for acts direct­ly result­ing from their sta­tus as vic­tims of human trafficking.

In 2005, Arti­cle 26 of the Coun­cil of Europe Con­ven­tion on Action against Traf­fick­ing in Human Beings was the first treaty to con­tain a legal­ly bind­ing non-pun­ish­ment provision.

In 2011, Direc­tive 2011/36/EU on traf­fick­ing in human beings specif­i­cal­ly recog­nis­es the grow­ing phe­nom­e­non where­by traf­fick­ers coerce vic­tims to forced crim­i­nal­i­ty. It refers to this as one of the forms of exploita­tion includ­ed in the def­i­n­i­tion of traf­fick­ing in human beings. This direc­tive con­tains an express bind­ing pro­vi­sion on non-pun­ish­ment (art 8). No lim­it is set on the seri­ous­ness of the offence.

In 2013, the OSCE point­ed out the need for a com­pre­hen­sive approach to com­bat­ing human traf­fick­ing in order to imple­ment the non-pun­ish­ment pro­vi­sion for vic­tims of traf­fick­ing.  The more traf­fick­ers can rely on a State’s crim­i­nal jus­tice sys­tem to arrest, charge, pros­e­cute and con­vict vic­tims of traf­fick­ing, instead of traf­fick­ers, for traf­fick­ing-relat­ed offences, the more favourable the con­di­tions are for traf­fick­ers to take advan­tage and con­tin­ue unhin­dered in their unlaw­ful activ­i­ty and unde­tect­ed by the authorities.

In 2014, the ILO Pro­to­col to the Forced Labour Con­ven­tion includ­ed a pro­vi­sion for States to ensure that the com­pe­tent author­i­ties are empow­ered not to pros­e­cute or impose penal­ties on vic­tims of forced or com­pul­so­ry labour.

In her 2015 report, the Unit­ed Nations Spe­cial Rap­por­teur on Traf­fick­ing in Human Beings states that States must pro­tect vic­tims of traf­fick­ing so that they are not held respon­si­ble for any ille­gal acts com­mit­ted as a result of their sub­mis­sion to the dom­i­nant influ­ence of their trafficker.

In her 2023 report on the pro­tec­tion of refugees, inter­nal­ly dis­placed per­sons and state­less per­sons, the Spe­cial Rap­por­teur, Ms Siob­hán Mul­lal­ly, empha­sis­es, build­ing on her 2021 report on the prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment, that the State has an oblig­a­tion to ensure that vic­tims of traf­fick­ing have an effec­tive oppor­tu­ni­ty to seek asy­lum and are not penalised because of the way in which they enter the coun­try. The prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment is also includ­ed in the spe­cif­ic pro­tec­tion afford­ed by Arti­cle 31 of the 1951 Con­ven­tion relat­ing to the Sta­tus of Refugees, which pro­tects refugees from pun­ish­ment for ille­gal entry and presence.

Today, traf­fick­ing in human beings for the pur­pose of com­mit­ting crimes is a real­i­ty, even if it is dif­fi­cult to mea­sure its extent due to the invis­i­bil­i­ty of the vic­tims. By recruit­ing minors because of their pre­car­i­ous eco­nom­ic, social and admin­is­tra­tive sit­u­a­tion, and because they are unaware of their rights, traf­fick­ers are able to shift the bur­den of the crim­i­nal jus­tice sys­tem onto minors rather than adults. This is a par­tic­u­lar­ly lucra­tive form of exploita­tion that takes many dif­fer­ent forms: pick­pock­et­ing, bur­glary, theft, sale of drugs, sale of cig­a­rettes, sale of coun­ter­feit goods, char­i­ty scams, etc. To com­bat it effec­tive­ly, we need to pre­vent it among poten­tial vic­tims and crack down on those who prof­it from crime. Sanc­tion­ing vic­tims of traf­fick­ing fuels the process.

3 / Pro­tec­tion must come first

The hold exert­ed on the vic­tim of traf­fick­ing may be indi­rect or psy­cho­log­i­cal, tak­ing the form of debt bondage, threats to report to the author­i­ties or oth­er sub­tle means, such as abuse of a posi­tion of vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty. It is essen­tial that the non-pun­ish­ment pro­vi­sion is applied in prac­tice as soon as the vic­tim is detect­ed by the author­i­ties, in order to offer effec­tive and com­pre­hen­sive protection.

Vic­tims must be imme­di­ate­ly removed from the crim­i­nal jus­tice sys­tem as offend­ers and must be pro­tect­ed as victims.

Fur­ther­more, non-pun­ish­ment remains in force until the vic­tim is ful­ly pro­tect­ed from pros­e­cu­tion and conviction.

When pro­tec­tion fails, the judi­cial author­i­ties them­selves must be able to con­firm the vic­tim’s lack of responsibility.

The oblig­a­tion not to pun­ish also applies to deten­tion. Deten­tion should end as soon as the sit­u­a­tion of traf­fick­ing is iden­ti­fied and the vic­tim should be tak­en into care if nec­es­sary in a spe­cialised struc­ture. Deten­tion com­pro­mis­es the phys­i­cal, psy­cho­log­i­cal and social recov­ery of vic­tims and can lead to an accu­mu­la­tion of trau­ma, sui­ci­dal behav­iour and post-trau­mat­ic syn­drome, as well as sec­ondary victimisation.

How­ev­er, in many coun­tries the prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment is not applied.


4 / Non-pun­ish­ment train­ing for all pro­fes­sion­als is imperative

Inves­ti­gat­ing, pros­e­cut­ing and judi­cial author­i­ties and legal prac­ti­tion­ers should be trained in the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of traf­fick­ing in order to be able to apply the prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment. More­over, if vic­tims are iden­ti­fied at an ear­ly stage and receive the pro­tec­tion and assis­tance to which they are enti­tled by virtue of their sta­tus as traf­ficked per­sons, they may also be in a bet­ter posi­tion to coop­er­ate with the author­i­ties in the inves­ti­ga­tion and iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of traf­fick­ers by pro­vid­ing infor­ma­tion or evi­dence or even by act­ing as wit­ness­es in crim­i­nal pro­ceed­ings against them.


5 / We must pri­ori­tise the rights and well-being of traf­ficked persons

Non-sanc­tion­ing favours an approach focused on pro­tect­ing the vic­tim by recog­nis­ing that vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing are sur­vivors of a crime, not crim­i­nals. By pro­tect­ing vic­tims, non-pun­ish­ment encour­ages them to coop­er­ate with law enforce­ment author­i­ties in iden­ti­fy­ing and pros­e­cut­ing traf­fick­ers, there­by strength­en­ing the over­all fight against human traf­fick­ing. Non-pun­ish­ment also pre­vents re-vic­tim­i­sa­tion: Pun­ish­ing vic­tims exac­er­bates their trau­ma, dis­cour­ages them from seek­ing help and per­pet­u­ates the cycles of exploita­tion. Non-pun­ish­ment is a cru­cial step in break­ing these cycles.



To con­clude (at the end of the event)

Non-pun­ish­ment responds to the need to iden­ti­fy the true cir­cum­stances in which an offence is com­mit­ted; it enables vic­tims to be direct­ed towards the safe­guard­ing and assis­tance arrange­ments to which they are enti­tled; it encour­ages inves­ti­ga­tions into the crime of human traf­fick­ing, lead­ing to an increase in pros­e­cu­tions against traf­fick­ers and a decrease in pros­e­cu­tions against vic­tims for offences com­mit­ted in the course of their victimization.

Non-pun­ish­ment can­not be prop­er­ly imple­ment­ed by sim­ply mit­i­gat­ing the penal­ties imposed, as this would not take into account the true con­di­tion of the vic­tim under the traf­fick­er’s control.

Legal and pol­i­cy reforms are need­ed to review and amend exist­ing leg­is­la­tion to ensure that vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing are pro­tect­ed and treat­ed as sur­vivors and not as offend­ers. Spe­cif­ic pro­vi­sions must be includ­ed that clear­ly exempt vic­tims from crim­i­nal lia­bil­i­ty for involve­ment in unlaw­ful activ­i­ties that result direct­ly from their exploitation.

Vic­tim sup­port sys­tems must be strength­ened. Estab­lish com­pre­hen­sive sup­port sys­tems that meet the spe­cif­ic needs of vic­tims of traf­fick­ing: safe accom­mo­da­tion, health ser­vices, psy­choso­cial sup­port, legal assis­tance, access to edu­ca­tion, train­ing and employment.

Col­lab­o­ra­tion with civ­il soci­ety organ­i­sa­tions, NGOs and rel­e­vant stake­hold­ers must be strength­ened to pro­vide com­pre­hen­sive assistance.

Train­ing and capac­i­ty build­ing for all pro­fes­sion­als and vol­un­teers involved is nec­es­sary for a vic­tim-cen­tred approach. Pro­vide them with the skills to iden­ti­fy vic­tims, han­dle cas­es sen­si­tive­ly and refer them to the appro­pri­ate sup­port services.

Inter­na­tion­al coop­er­a­tion and infor­ma­tion exchange mech­a­nisms must be strength­ened in order to facil­i­tate the extra­di­tion of traf­fick­ers, pro­mote cross-bor­der inves­ti­ga­tions and estab­lish coop­er­a­tion frame­works to guar­an­tee the pro­tec­tion and non-pun­ish­ment of vic­tims, regard­less of their loca­tion or nationality.

Michel Veuthey

Mer­ci, Geneviève. Thank you for these impor­tant remarks. Now, our sec­ond speak­er is Vir­ginia Gam­ba de Pot­gi­er, Spe­cial Rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the UN Sec­re­tary-Gen­er­al for Chil­dren in Armed Con­flict. She kind­ly pro­vid­ed us with a video state­ment from New York.


Vir­ginia Gamba


Thanks to the Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta and co-orga­niz­ers for the invi­ta­tion to con­tribute to today’s dis­cus­sions on non-pun­ish­ment of human traf­fick­ing vic­tims. My man­date mon­i­tors the six grave vio­la­tions against chil­dren in armed con­flict, includ­ing recruit­ment and use, rape and oth­er forms of sex­u­al vio­lence, killing and maim­ing, attacks on schools and hos­pi­tals, abduc­tion, and the denial of human­i­tar­i­an access.

In 2022, the Unit­ed Nations ver­i­fied an over­all num­ber of 27,080 grave vio­la­tions against chil­dren, includ­ing 2,880 that had occurred pri­or to 2021, but were only ver­i­fied in 2022. A total of 18,890 chil­dren were vic­tims of at least one of the four grave vio­la­tions affect­ing indi­vid­ual chil­dren. Recruit­ment and use, killing and maim­ing, rape, and oth­er forms of sex­u­al vio­lence and abduc­tion are on the increase. At least 2,330 chil­dren were vic­tims of mul­ti­ple vio­la­tions. Due to their inter­con­nect­ed and mul­ti-lay­ered nature, I have been more increas­ing­ly con­cerned with the link­ages between these vio­la­tions and human trafficking.

This is par­tic­u­lar­ly because the ris­ing cross bor­der dimen­sion of con­flict pos­es an addi­tion­al threat to the pro­tec­tion of chil­dren. And in cas­es of abduc­tion, for instance, some vio­la­tions could serve as a pre­cur­sor for human trafficking.

I wel­come your focus on the pro­tec­tion of vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing, as often­times we wit­ness that chil­dren as per­sons under 18 years of age per Arti­cle 1 of the Con­ven­tion on the Rights of the Child (CRC) suf­fer vio­la­tions despite their sta­tus as minors. In 2018, with the adop­tion of its Res­o­lu­tion S/RES/2427 (2018) on chil­dren and armed con­flict, the UN Secu­ri­ty Coun­cil estab­lished that the chil­dren who have been recruit­ed in vio­la­tion of applic­a­ble inter­na­tion­al law by armed forces and armed groups and are accused of hav­ing com­mit­ted crimes dur­ing their asso­ci­a­tion should be treat­ed pri­mar­i­ly as vic­tims of inter­na­tion­al law vio­la­tions. This was in the con­text of the treat­ment of chil­dren in detention.

But it is impor­tant to note, as the Coun­cil remind­ed Mem­ber States of their oblig­a­tions under the Con­ven­tion on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and this pro­vi­sion relates to the prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment being dis­cussed in your event today. In pro­mot­ing a com­pre­hen­sive frame­work for devel­op­ing and imple­ment­ing non-pun­ish­ment poli­cies that pri­ori­tise the rights of sur­vivors of human traf­fick­ing, I call your atten­tion to sev­er­al key con­sid­er­a­tions regard­ing chil­dren affect­ed by armed con­flict specifically.

First and fore­most, chil­dren who have suf­fered vio­la­tions and abus­es should be recog­nised as sur­vivors of crimes and offered prop­er treat­ment. We must ensure that chil­dren who are released or escaped cap­tors should be ade­quate­ly sup­port­ed and rein­te­grat­ed safe­ly back into their com­mu­ni­ties, that their spe­cif­ic needs are addressed in a com­pre­hen­sive and sus­tain­able way, while being mind­ful of age and gen­der spe­cif­ic needs, and that no mea­sures tak­en by any actor are re-vic­tim­iz­ing or re-trau­ma­tiz­ing in any way.In the course of these efforts, we must also ded­i­cate ade­quate child pro­tec­tion capac­i­ty in the form of human and finan­cial resources.

We must also work togeth­er to raise aware­ness of the impor­tance of reg­is­ter­ing chil­dren at birth, grant­i­ng them the right to iden­ti­ty in accor­dance with Arti­cle 8 of the Con­ven­tion of the Rights of the Child (CRC), which is a crit­i­cal ini­tial step to ensure chil­dren’s pro­tec­tion in con­text liable to traf­fick­ing and relat­ed vio­la­tions and abus­es. Every per­son under 18 years must be recog­nised as a child. As chil­dren are enti­tled to spe­cial pro­tec­tion under inter­na­tion­al human rights law, par­tic­u­lar­ly under the Con­ven­tion (CRC).

At the local, nation­al, and region­al lev­els, pub­lic aware­ness and ear­ly warn­ing mech­a­nisms can con­tribute to pre­ven­tion efforts against grave vio lations such as abduc­tion, includ­ing its links to traf­fick­ing and gener­ic vio­lence against children.

We must also enhance our under­stand­ing and knowl­edge of the link­ages on a deep­er and more sys­tem­at­ic lev­el. This is why the Spe­cial Rap­por­teur on human traf­fick­ing, espe­cial­ly women and chil­dren, and I, are com­menc­ing a ded­i­cat­ed study to fur­ther analyse the nexus between traf­fick­ing of chil­dren and grave vio­la­tions. And to improve the way we address the links between abduc­tion and human traf­fick­ing pur­pos­es, and those between these two evils and oth­er vio­la­tions mon­i­tored through the “Chil­dren and Armed Con­flict Agenda”,such as recruit­ment and use and rape and oth­er forms of sex­u­al violence.

Final­ly, I would like to draw your atten­tion to the Guid­ance Note on Abduc­tion my office launched last July in the pres­ence of the Spe­cial Rap­por­teur aimed at our mon­i­tors on the ground, which is in part a tool for under­stand­ing and refin­ing the def­i­n­i­tions of abduc­tion, par­tic­u­lar­ly when exam­in­ing cross bor­der con­texts, includ­ing on child traf­fick­ing and its link­ages to abduc­tion and oth­er grave violations.

I encour­age you to ref­er­ence the Guid­ance Note avail­able on my office’s web­site ( in your work, as we are hop­ing that it could become the ini­tial step in inter­a­gency and our pro­gram­mat­ic dis­cus­sions in the quest to under­stand and com­bat trafficking.

In con­sid­er­ing pre­ven­tion of re-vic­tim­i­sa­tion of the vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing, let us take into account that many of these vic­tims are children.

Thank you very much.



Michel Veuthey


Thank you, Ms Gam­ba, for high­light­ing the impor­tance of the non-pun­ish­ment prin­ci­ple for chil­dren in sit­u­a­tions of armed con­flict. Our third speak­er is Patrick Eba, UNHCR Deputy Direc­tor for Protection.

Patrick Eba


Talk­ing Points for DD-DIP

HRC 53rd Session 

Side event on Non-Pun­ish­ment of Vic­tims of Human Traf­fick­ing: Enhanc­ing Inter­na­tion­al Pro­tec­tion for Refugees and IDPs in the Per­spec­tive of Glob­al Refugees Forum


Human Rights Coun­cil, 4 July 2023

State­ment by Patrick Eba, Deputy Direc­tor, Divi­sion of Inter­na­tion­al Protection 



I would like to start by express­ing UNHCR’s appre­ci­a­tion to the Per­ma­nent Mis­sion of the Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta and Car­i­tas for invit­ing us to speak dur­ing this impor­tant event.


[1] In 2022, for the first time, the world passed the sym­bol­ic mark of 100 mil­lion peo­ple forcibly dis­placed. This unprece­dent­ed high lev­el of dis­place­ment is dri­ven by con­flict, vio­lence, and per­se­cu­tion. New con­flicts in coun­tries such as Ethiopia, Ukraine and Sudan com­pound pro­tract­ed and decades-long sit­u­a­tions of forced displacement.


When peo­ple are forced to flee, whether inter­nal­ly or across bor­ders, fre­quent­ly along unsafe routes, traf­fick­ers can some­times seem to be offer­ing solu­tions. Recent data com­piled by the Pro­tec­tion Clus­ters in 32 coun­tries affect­ed by dis­place­ment, reveals that in 65%, traf­fick­ing is a mod­er­ate to extreme risk. Often, traf­fick­ing is not a sin­gle phe­nom­e­non in sit­u­a­tions of dis­place­ments. The risk of traf­fick­ing is asso­ci­at­ed with mul­ti­ple-relat­ed risks and vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties includ­ing severe and extreme risks of gen­der-based vio­lence, and risks of ear­ly and forced mar­riage and forced recruit­ment, includ­ing of children.

Increas­ing num­bers of the world’s forcibly dis­placed and state­less peo­ple face pover­ty, dis­crim­i­na­tion, and mar­gin­al­iza­tion, which in turn expose them to risks of traf­fick­ing. We need to rein­force pro­tec­tion for them.

[2] Traf­fick­ing affects peo­ple at dif­fer­ent stages of their dis­place­ment. We must be alert to the traf­fick­ing risks from the out­set of crises and rec­og­nize the pat­terns of human rights vio­la­tions and abus­es typ­i­cal of trafficking. 


Across all regions, pres­sures to con­trol bor­ders and migra­tion often have seri­ous unin­tend­ed con­se­quences, includ­ing deten­tion and refoule­ment. Denial of access to asy­lum pro­ce­dures or lack of mech­a­nisms for the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of vic­tims of traf­fick­ing often lead to denial of rights with dra­mat­ic consequences.

Where no safe path­ways to pro­tec­tion exist for peo­ple seek­ing safe­ty, resort­ing to smug­glers or using oth­er clan­des­tine means is often the only way refugees can seek asy­lum and access the inter­na­tion­al pro­tec­tion to which they are enti­tled. They may find them­selves at the mer­cy of ruth­less smug­glers and traf­fick­ers who exploit their vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty and take advan­tage of their inse­cu­ri­ty to charge high prices to move des­per­ate refugees seek­ing safe­ty and protection.

For refugees and inter­nal­ly dis­placed peo­ple liv­ing in camps or urban set­tings in pro­tract­ed sit­u­a­tions — traf­fick­ing risks often increase over time. For exam­ple, in Bangladesh, risks of traf­fick­ing are exac­er­bat­ed for Rohingya refugees with­out legal sta­tus, no right to work and restric­tions on move­ments out­side camps, on edu­ca­tion and liveli­hood opportunities.

Women and girls, in par­tic­u­lar, are recruit­ed for domes­tic work or as hotel maids but then traf­ficked for domes­tic servi­tude, forced labour and sex­u­al exploita­tion both with­in Bangladesh and transnationally.

In the dis­place­ment and cri­sis con­texts where we serve, for exam­ple, in the East and Horn of Africa, in the Sahel and along the routes to Cen­tral and West­ern Mediter­ranean, in South­east Asia, there are hun­dreds of record­ed traf­fick­ing cas­es. For asy­lum-seek­ers and refugees who flee in search of safe­ty or when mov­ing onward due to the lack of access to effec­tive pro­tec­tion or, traf­fick­ing risks per­sist. UNHCR’s ini­tia­tive enti­tled ‘Telling The Real Sto­ry’  col­lects tes­ti­monies of sur­vivors and pro­vides com­mu­ni­ties with trust­wor­thy infor­ma­tion on the risks of such dan­ger­ous jour­neys.  UNHCR and our part­ners work tire­less­ly to doc­u­ment the abus­es, iden­ti­fy those who have suf­fered harm, map avail­able pro­tec­tion ser­vices and ensure victims/survivors refer­ral and access to them.

[5] Seek­ing asy­lum is not an unlaw­ful act. It is a uni­ver­sal human right. The exer­cise of this right can­not and should not be criminalized. 


This is the ratio­nale behind Arti­cle 31 of the 1951 Con­ven­tion, which deals with the non-penal­iza­tion of refugees for irreg­u­lar entry. This pro­vi­sion is cen­tral to refugee pro­tec­tion. It serves to ensure that refugees and asy­lum seek­ers are able to access and exer­cise their human right to seek asy­lum with­out being penal­ized for breach­es of immi­gra­tion laws.

While Arti­cle 31 of the Refugee Con­ven­tion does not pro­vide blan­ket scope for irreg­u­lar entry for refugees and asy­lum seek­ers in all cir­cum­stances, it does artic­u­late spe­cif­ic para­me­ters that should be inter­pret­ed broad­ly and in good faith. Non penal­i­sa­tion of asy­lum seek­ers and refugees will direct­ly con­tribute to non-penal­i­sa­tion of those traf­ficked beyond borders.

[6] Much more is need­ed to address the pro­tec­tion needs of sur­vivors and ensure their access to inter­na­tion­al pro­tec­tion where needed. 

In 2006, UNHCR pub­lished its Traf­fick­ing Guide­lines[1], defin­ing UNHCR’s engage­ment with vic­tims of traf­fick­ing and per­sons at risk of traf­fick­ing whose claim to inter­na­tion­al pro­tec­tion falls with­in the refugee def­i­n­i­tion. More recent­ly, the Glob­al com­pact on refugees has also focused on sup­port­ing States to iden­ti­fy and refer vic­tims of traf­fick­ing to appro­pri­ate process­es and pro­ce­dures, includ­ing for the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of inter­na­tion­al pro­tec­tion needs.

Yet, across all regions, chal­lenges remain in ensur­ing access to asy­lum pro­ce­dures and accom­pa­ny­ing pro­tec­tions for vic­tims and per­sons at risk of trafficking.

Some promis­ing prac­tices exist. For exam­ple, in Italy, UNHCR and the Nation­al Asy­lum Com­mis­sion devel­oped the Guide­lines on Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of Vic­tims of Traf­fick­ing among appli­cants for inter­na­tion­al pro­tec­tion. Sig­nif­i­cant num­bers of poten­tial vic­tims (i.e. per­sons for whom there are grounds to believe that they may have been traf­ficked) were detect­ed, about 10.400 in the peri­od 2018 to June 2020.

[7] We need to con­tin­ue to sup­port States in ful­fill­ing their inter­na­tion­al oblig­a­tions of refugee pro­tec­tion and pre­ven­tion of traf­fick­ing and vic­tim pro­tec­tion.

This requires proac­tive pre­ven­tion. This means pro­vid­ing refugees with safe routes of admis­sion to seek pro­tec­tion to avoid risky jour­neys facil­i­tat­ed by smug­glers and traffickers.

Proac­tive pre­ven­tion also means help­ing forcibly dis­placed per­sons access sus­tain­able solu­tions, pro­vid­ing them with oppor­tu­ni­ties to work, enrol chil­dren in school, sup­port the host com­mu­ni­ties and inte­grate locally.

Secur­ing solu­tions includes improv­ing access to com­ple­men­tary path­ways to give refugees more routes to pro­tec­tion, such as reunit­ing with fam­i­lies and access­ing schol­ar­ships and employ­ment oppor­tu­ni­ties in third coun­tries. When peo­ple have access to safe­ty and oppor­tu­ni­ties, and when solu­tions are real, they become more resilient and self-reliant.

Con­sis­tent and effec­tive imple­men­ta­tion of these pre­ven­tion, solu­tions and com­ple­men­tary approach­es will save lives and improve dig­ni­ty by cut­ting the busi­ness mod­el of traf­fick­ers who will not be able to cap­i­tal­ize on vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties. The Glob­al Refugee Forum in Decem­ber will pro­vide an oppor­tu­ni­ty to advance com­mit­ment by States and oth­er stake­hold­ers on these crit­i­cal issues.




Michel Veuthey


Thank you, Mr. Eba, for remind­ing us of the link between non-pun­ish­ment of human traf­fick­ing vic­tims and refugees. Our next speak­er Dr. Char­lie Lamen­to, US Lawyer, Sol­lic­i­tor in Eng­land and Wales, Reg­is­tered Euro­pean Lawyer (Czech Repub­lic), UN Per­ma­nent Rep­re­sen­ta­tive for Glob­al Hope Network

Char­lie Lamento


Human Traf­fick­ing Talk­ing Points

Case Stud­ies

  • The aver­age annu­al prof­its gen­er­at­ed by 1 woman via forced sex­u­al servi­tude aka pros­ti­tu­tion is est. ($100,000) (Orga­ni­za­tion for Secu­ri­ty and Co-oper­a­tion in Europe (OSCE)
  • “Sex­ploita­tion” can yield a return on invest­ment rang­ing from 100% to 1,000%, while an forced labor­er can pro­duce more than 50% profits
  • Nether­lands: Inves­ti­ga­tors cal­cu­lat­ed the prof­it gen­er­at­ed by 2 sex traf­fick­ers from a num­ber of vic­tims. 1 traf­fick­er earned $18,148 per month from 4 vic­tims (for a total of $127,036) while the 2nd traf­fick­er earned $295,786 in the 14 months that 3 women were sex­u­al­ly exploit­ed accord­ing to the OSCE.
  • Ger­many: Forced labor saves labor costs: In one case, Chi­nese kitchen work­ers were paid $808 for a 78-hour work­week in Ger­many. Accord­ing to Ger­man law, a cook was enti­tled to earn $2,558 for a 39-hour work­week accord­ing to the OSCE.

Alarm­ing­ly Low Num­ber of Prosecutions/Convictions of Human Traffickers

  • The present day tac­tics and strate­gies are not work­ing, as the num­ber of crim­i­nal pros­e­cu­tions and con­vic­tions for human traf­fick­ers and their accom­plices remain extreme­ly low globally.


  • Esti­mat­ed in 2017, 17,880 offend­ers were pros­e­cut­ed world­wide, and only 7,045 were con­vict­ed = the major­i­ty of human traf­fick­ers are nei­ther appre­hend­ed nor pros­e­cut­ed. (US State Depart­ment (2018) Traf­fick­ing in Per­sons Report)
  • Esti­mat­ed in 2018, only 743 per­sons inves­ti­gat­ed in 10 coun­tries — 183 per­sons pros­e­cut­ed in 8 coun­tries - 70 per­sons con­vict­ed in 7 coun­tries. (UNODC Glob­al Report on TIP 2018). Result: the risk for traf­fick­ers to face jus­tice is extreme­ly low


  • 2015–2016 Euro­pean Union MSs report­ed 5979 pros­e­cu­tions and 2927 con­vic­tions for traf­fick­ing in human being (EU Com­mis­sion Sec­ond report on the progress made in the fight against traf­fick­ing in human beings (2018) as required under Arti­cle 20 of Direc­tive 2011/36/EU on pre­vent­ing and com­bat­ing traf­fick­ing in human beings and pro­tect­ing its vic­tims 3/12/2018)
  • MSs/WHO should declare that pornog­ra­phy is pub­lic health cri­sis – espe­cial­ly as it per­tains to children.
  • See 16 US state leg­is­la­tures declarations
  • Peo­ple addict­ed to pornog­ra­phy show sim­i­lar brain activ­i­ty to alco­holics or drug addicts.
  • MRI scans of test sub­jects who admit­ted to com­pul­sive pornog­ra­phy use showed that the reward cen­ters of the brain react­ed to see­ing explic­it mate­r­i­al in the same way as an alco­ho lic’s might on see­ing a drinks advert.

Glob­al Hope Net­work Int. Rue de Varem­bé 1, Genève Switzer­land 1202
Email: - Web:
Swiss Fed­er­al Com­mer­cial Reg­is­ter No.: CHE 110.622.356 — Genève Canton

See South Korea’s Effec­tive Porn Block­ing Method

  • In Feb­ru­ary 2019, South Korea enact­ed a con­tro­ver­sial new method to block ille­gal con­tent, specif­i­cal­ly pornog­ra­phy and pirat­ed mate­r­i­al, accessed through Hyper­text Trans­fer Pro­to­col Secure (HTTPS) web­sites.21 The new scheme uses Serv­er Name Indication–filtering (SNI), which entails mon­i­tor­ing the unen­crypt­ed SNI that shows which HTTPS sites a user is vis­it­ing.22
  • See:

The inter­na­tion­al com­mu­ni­ty must enact a uni­ver­sal standard/test to iden­ti­fy post-trau­mat­ic stress syn­drome (CPSD) that would reduce the pros­e­cu­tion traf­ficked victims

  • Stud­ies indi­cat­ed that an aver­age of 41% of sur­vivors of mod­ern slav­ery and human traf­fick­ing had CPTSD



Michel Veuthey


Thank you, Dr. Lamen­to, for your insight­ful remarks. Now, our fifth speak­er is Dr. Olivia SMITH, Exec­u­tive Direc­tor of the Caribbean Anti-Human Traf­fick­ing Foun­da­tion. She will give us a video-record­ed statement



Olivia Smith


His Excel­len­cy, Michel Veuthey, Ambas­sador of the Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta to com­bat human trafficking.

Oth­er Excel­len­cies, offi­cials, ladies and gen­tle­men, good morning.

Human traf­fick­ing con­sti­tutes a severe and intri­cate form of exploita­tion, cru­el­ly rob­bing indi­vid­u­als of their rights, free­doms, and human dig­ni­ty. It rep­re­sents an affront to our col­lec­tive human­i­ty, inflict­ing harm on indi­vid­u­als and com­mu­ni­ties world­wide, com­pro­mis­ing nation­al and eco­nom­ic secu­ri­ty, and erod­ing the rule of law. This rep­re­hen­si­ble prac­tice has no place in our glob­al soci­ety. Despite the rat­i­fi­ca­tion or acces­sion of over 175 nations to the Unit­ed Nations Pro­to­col to pre­vent, sup­press, and pun­ish traf­fick­ing in per­sons, which metic­u­lous­ly defines human traf­fick­ing and estab­lish­es oblig­a­tion to deter and com­bat this crime, progress remains uneven. Vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing fre­quent­ly bear the legal bur­den of illic­it activ­i­ties com­mit­ted as a direct result of their traf­fick­ing cir­cum­stances. These actions not only encom­pass spe­cif­ic forms of exploita­tion, such as pros­e­cu­tion or engage­ment in ille­gal work, but also the asso­ci­at­ed immi­gra­tion, admin­is­tra­tive and civ­il offences.

How­ev­er, it is cru­cial to under­score that the spot­light of inves­ti­ga­tions and pros­e­cu­tions should shine large­ly on the crim­i­nal actions of traf­fick­ers. These per­pe­tra­tors, not their vic­tims, are legal­ly account­able for the pre­cise exploita­tive forms enforced upon the vic­tims. A lack of this nuanced under­stand­ing by States results in risk of re-trau­ma­tis­ing of vic­tims who may be wrong­ful­ly arrest­ed, pros­e­cut­ed, and con­vict­ed for crimes com­mit­ted while engi­neered in the traf­fick­ing sys­tem. Such mis­ap­pli­ca­tion of the law could detri­men­tal­ly affect vic­tims, infringe upon their rights, and dis­cour­age col­lab­o­ra­tion with legal pro­ceed­ings and com­pro­mise the wider jus­tice system.

Notably, this sit­u­a­tion con­tin­ues to dis­pro­por­tion­ate­ly impact women and girls world­wide. In the land­scape of human traf­fick­ing vic­tim rights, the prin­ci­ple of non-pun­ish­ment is the cor­ner­stone of the human rights pro­tec­tion in inter­na­tion­al, region­al, and domes­tic laws. This con­cept devel­oped sub­stan­tial promi­nence as it relates to the invalu­able legal right of vic­tims to pro­tec­tion. Pros­e­cut­ing traf­fick­ing vic­tims fla­grant­ly vio­lates their rights to protection.Non-punishment pro­vi­sions thus serve the dual pur­pose of extend­ing the legal­ly deserved pro­tec­tion to traf­fick­ing vic­tims and pre­vent­ing re-traf­fick­ing, while simul­ta­ne­ous­ly ensur­ing that the actu­al per­pe­tra­tors are brought to jus­tice. This approach aligns with the objec­tives out­lined in the Pre­am­ble of the Paler­mo Protocol.

Mov­ing for­ward, Gov­ern­ments should abstain from penal­is­ing or pros­e­cut­ing traf­fick­ing vic­tims for all law­ful activ­i­ties forced upon them by their traf­fick­ers. This prin­ci­ple should shield vic­tims from legal account­abil­i­ty, from actions they were coerced to do by their traf­fick­ers. If a vic­tim has been wrong­ful­ly penalised or pun­ished, Gov­ern­ments should vacate their con­vic­tions and expunge their records.

The post COVID 19 era offers States, inter­na­tion­al organ­i­sa­tions, and com­mu­ni­ties a great oppor­tu­ni­ty to eval­u­ate and re-ener­gize actions on this issue. Key ini­tia­tives should include the devel­op­ment of statu­to­ry defens­es and nation­al law, train­ing across the judi­cial sys­tems and law enforce­ment, and assis­tance ser­vices to sup­port vic­tim iden­ti­fi­ca­tion and the inte­gra­tion of non-pun­ish­ment prin­ci­ples into anti traf­fick­ing frame­works. Apply­ing these prin­ci­ples in a non-dis­crim­i­na­to­ry age and gen­der respon­sive man­ner is an imper­a­tive step towards meet­ing State social and legal oblig­a­tion towards vic­tims of human trafficking.

Thank you.



Michel Veuthey


Thank you, Dr. Smith.  Our next speak­er is Dr. Andrea Salvoni, OSCE Act­ing Coor­di­na­tor for Com­bat­ting Traf­fick­ing in Human Beings. He shall give us a short video mes­sage on the role of OSCE in pro­mot­ing the non-pun­ish­ment principle.

Andrea Salvoni



Michel Veuthey

Thank you, Andrea.Now we have plea­sure to give the floor to Ena Lucia MARIACA PACHECO and Sil­via De Rosa, from INTERPOL.

Ena L. Mari­a­ca Pacheco


Ladies and gen­tle­men, Dis­tin­guished guests,

Let me begin by thank­ing the Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta, Car­i­tas Inter­na­tion­alis, Sec­ours Catholique, and Cos­ta Rica for invit­ing us to this impor­tant meeting.

My name is Ena Lucia Mari­a­ca Pacheco, and my col­league Sil­via De Rosa are here before you today on behalf of the Inter­na­tion­al Crim­i­nal Police Orga­ni­za­tion, Inter­pol, to address an impor­tant mat­ter that demands our unwa­ver­ing atten­tion and col­lab­o­ra­tive efforts.

The issue at hand is the non-pun­ish­ment of vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing, the urgent need to enhance vic­tim pro­tec­tion, fos­ter col­lab­o­ra­tion across all sec­tors, ensure safe­guard­ing, build­ing capac­i­ty, and strength­en inter­na­tion­al cooperation.

Today, we assert that vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing should not be treat­ed as crim­i­nals. They are vic­tims and sur­vivors, indi­vid­u­als who have endured unimag­in­able suf­fer­ing and trauma.

It is through this safe­guard­ing lens that Inter­pol advo­cates for the non-pun­ish­ment of vic­tims and a shift in focus from crim­i­nal­iza­tion to vic­tim-cen­tered approaches.

The Human Traf­fick­ing and Smug­gling of Migrants Unit at INTERPOL is under the Vul­ner­a­ble Com­mu­ni­ties Sub-direc­torate. This sub-direc­torate, dif­fer­ent­ly from oth­ers, as it has a focus on crime areas that place peo­ple in vul­ner­a­ble situations.

There­fore, it is imper­a­tive that in the fight against these crimes, it is not the only pri­or­i­ty for law enforce­ment to dis­man­tle these crim­i­nal net­works, but also safe­guard the vic­tims that have been affect­ed by them.

We need to remem­ber that vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing can be any gen­der and any age – and I would like to high­light the need to not for­get the count­less men and boys of these crimes. At INTERPOL we rec­og­nize this and aim to pro­tect all victims.

INTERPOL has been work­ing on devel­op­ing poli­cies and pro­ce­dures for the pro­tec­tion and assis­tance of vic­tims, it has pro­duced inter­nal guide­lines in this regard, and it is con­tin­u­ous­ly assess­ing how these pro­ce­dures can be enhanced.

In accor­dance with INTERPOL’s Con­sti­tu­tion, which has been draft­ed in the spir­it of the Uni­ver­sal Dec­la­ra­tion of Human Rights, INTER­POL-facil­i­tat­ed oper­a­tions should reach their objec­tives while not fur­ther harm­ing the human rights and dig­ni­ty of vul­ner­a­ble communities.

Law enforce­ment agen­cies are often the first ones to have con­tact with a vic­tim of human traf­fick­ing, and this first approach is cru­cial for good assis­tance and devel­op­ment of the case.

An offi­cial must be aware of the impact of this crime on the vic­tims, and it is their respon­si­bil­i­ty to iden­ti­fy which kind of imme­di­ate assis­tance is need­ed and prop­er­ly refer the victim.

Sil­via will now fur­ther explain our safe­guard­ing frame­work in our glob­al oper­a­tions and projects.


Sil­via De Rosa


In the frame­work of INTERPOL HTSM oper­a­tions, INTERPOL stress­es to nation­al law enforce­ment agen­cies the impor­tance of hav­ing a plan to ensure vic­tims and vul­ner­a­ble migrants that may be iden­ti­fied dur­ing the oper­a­tion will receive the pro­tec­tion and assis­tance they need.

INTERPOL asks that this be clear­ly detailed in all nation­al oper­a­tional plans.

A ses­sion on vic­tim pro­tec­tion and assis­tance is deliv­ered dur­ing the pre-oper­a­tional train­ing to nation­al law enforce­ment offi­cers that will be involved in the operation.

INTERPOL has an agree­ment with IOM since 2014 that allowed great col­lab­o­ra­tion between the two orga­ni­za­tions. IOM has a com­pli­men­ta­ry man­date to INTERPOL’s, which allows it to pro­vide assis­tance to vic­tims when nation­al insti­tu­tions cannot.

Indeed, in the case where nation­al author­i­ties lack the nec­es­sary resources to pro­vide ade­quate sup­port to vic­tims and vul­ner­a­ble migrants and do not have local/national part­ners that can pro­vide full sup­port, Nation­al Cen­tral Bureaus are invit­ed to noti­fy INTERPOL of this need and request its sup­port in liais­ing with IOM. INTERPOL Gen­er­al Sec­re­tari­at then coor­di­nates with IOM HQ to find solutions.

An exam­ple of this col­lab­o­ra­tion with IOM is Project AKOMA joint­ly imple­ment­ed in 2015. The oper­a­tion orga­nized with­in this project allowed the res­cue of 75 chil­dren vic­tims of human trafficking.

More recent­ly, in 2021, Oper­a­tion PRISCAS, orga­nized with­in the frame­work of the THB West Africa Project res­cued a total of 90 vic­tims, 56 of which were chil­dren and 34 adults. In this case, vic­tim assis­tance has been pro­vid­ed through the direct col­lab­o­ra­tion of the local law enforce­ment agen­cies involved in the oper­a­tion and local insti­tu­tions and NGOs.

This project is an exam­ple of the suc­cess that can be reached through the imple­men­ta­tion of projects that com­bine the capac­i­ty build­ing com­po­nent, offer­ing spe­cial­ized train­ing on THB, on INTERPOL’s polic­ing capa­bil­i­ties and on dis­sem­i­na­tion of knowl­edge (train-the-train­er); with the oper­a­tional com­po­nent, sup­port­ing inves­ti­ga­tions on THB through­out the whole length of the project. Judi­cia­ry is involved too, at the pros­e­cu­tion lev­el espe­cial­ly, which is cru­cial to progress with the crim­i­nal case of the traf­fick­ers after the arrest, but often also for the offi­cial iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of vic­tims and their access to justice.

In con­clu­sion, INTERPOL stands com­mit­ted to the non-pun­ish­ment of vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing, and to achieve these objec­tives men­tioned above, we must work col­lab­o­ra­tive­ly to cre­ate a com­pre­hen­sive sup­port sys­tem encom­pass­ing short and long-term needs to safe­guard and sup­port vic­tims and sur­vivors, regard­less of age, gen­der, or ethnicity.

Thank you.


Michel Veuthey

Thank you both for shar­ing the views from INTERPOL HQ and your field experience.

I would like to extend my thanks to all the pan­elists present here today. We all share a com­mon under­stand­ing: traf­fick­ers must be appre­hend­ed, pros­e­cut­ed, and sub­ject­ed to legal mea­sures, where­as vic­tims should be pro­tect­ed by the law and pro­vid­ed with assis­tance to rein­te­grate into society.

In con­clu­sion, non-pun­ish­ment is a cru­cial ele­ment in pro­tect­ing vic­tims of human traf­fick­ing and pre­vent­ing their fur­ther vic­tim­iza­tion. By rec­og­niz­ing the vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty of vic­tims, encour­ag­ing report­ing, pro­mot­ing reha­bil­i­ta­tion, and imple­ment­ing com­pre­hen­sive sup­port sys­tems, soci­eties can ensure that vic­tims receive the pro­tec­tion and assis­tance they need to rebuild their lives. We hope that this event pro­vid­ed a con­tri­bu­tion to guide pol­i­cy­mak­ers, gov­ern­ments, and stake­hold­ers in devel­op­ing and imple­ment­ing effec­tive non-pun­ish­ment poli­cies that pri­or­i­tize the rights and well-being of traf­fick­ing sur­vivors. Vic­tims should be pro­tect­ed and pro­vid­ed with assis­tance to rein­te­grate into society.


[1] UNHCR Guide­lines on Inter­na­tion­al Pro­tec­tion No7 on the appli­ca­tion of Arti­cle 1A(2) of the 1951 Con­ven­tion and/or 1967 Pro­to­col relat­ing to the Sta­tus of Refugees to vic­tims of traf­fick­ing and per­sons at risk of being trafficked







Adlaudatosi Webinars Videos VIMEO

Videos of the speakers’ interventions adlaudatosi VIMEO

Adlaudatosi Webinars Videos YOUTUBE

Religious Helping Trafficking Victims along the Road of Recovery (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Religious Working In International Advocacy Against Human Trafficking (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Impact Of Human Trafficking On Health: Trauma (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Impact Of Human Trafficking On Health: Healing (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — Where Are We Now? (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — What can be done? (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — Best Practices (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Demand As Root Cause For Human Trafficking – Sex Trafficking & Prostitution

Human Trafficking — Interview with Prof. Michel Veuthey, Order of Malta — 44th UN Human Right Council 2020

POPE’S PAYER INTENTION FOR FEBRUARY 2020: Hear the cries of migrants victims of human trafficking


Church on the frontlines in fight against human trafficking



Catholic social teaching

Doctrine sociale de l’Église catholique

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