Select Page

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — Where Are We Now? (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — Where Are We Now? (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)
Advertisement

Your are wel­come to watch our first On-Demand Video Webi­nar on “Inter­na­tion­al Pros­e­cu­tion Of Human Traf­fick­ing — Where Are We Now?”.

The Ambas­sador of the Order of Mal­ta to mon­i­tor and com­bat traf­fick­ing in per­sons orga­nizes a series of 3 webi­na­rs on the inter­na­tion­al pros­e­cu­tion of human traf­fick­ing. This series of 3 webi­na­rs will assess the imple­men­ta­tion of this treaty, raise aware­ness on the need to effec­tive­ly pros­e­cute traf­fick­ers, and pro­mote action at the inter­na­tion­al, region­al and nation­al levels.

The first webi­nar took place on Tues­day, the 16th of February.

This webi­nar did focus on the present sit­u­a­tion, tak­ing stock of the imple­men­ta­tion of the Paler­mo Pro­to­col, 20 years after its adoption.

The webi­nar high­light­ed how dif­fi­cult it is today to pros­e­cute human traf­fick­ing crim­i­nals: accord­ing to Kevin High­land, first Inde­pen­dent Anti-Slav­ery Com­mis­sion­er for the UK gov­ern­ment, less than one in 1,250 traf­fick­ing cas­es is cur­rent­ly pros­e­cut­ed. Accord­ing to him, it is time to put in place at the inter­na­tion­al lev­el, a plan on the same scale as the one being launched to fight glob­al warm­ing. Very few resources are devot­ed by gov­ern­ments to fight traf­fick­ing, which affects more than 45 mil­lion peo­ple worldwide.

 

Speak­ers:

Pro­fes­sor Michel Veuthey, Mod­er­a­tor, Ambas­sador of the Sov­er­eign Order of Mal­ta to Mon­i­tor and Com­bat Traf­fick­ing in Persons

Mor­gane Nicot, Dis­cus­sant, UNODC Crim­i­nal Jus­tice Offi­cer, Team Leader, Knowl­edge Devel­op­ment / Human Traf­fick­ing & Migrant Smuggling

Kevin Hyland, 30 years expe­ri­ence of police inves­ti­ga­tion. From 2010, Head for the estab­lish­ment of the Met­ro­pol­i­tan Police Human Traf­fick­ing response in UK and from 2014 to May 2018, first Inde­pen­dent Anti-Slav­ery Com­mis­sion­er for the UK gov­ern­ment, from 2018, Ireland’s rep­re­sen­ta­tive to the Coun­cil of Europe Inde­pen­dent Group of Experts for Traf­fick­ing (Gre­ta). Cur­rent­ly Chair of the Lead­er­ship Group for Respon­si­ble Recruit­ment (the lever­age of major inter­na­tion­al brands to pro­mote respon­si­ble recruit­ment prac­tices in the way that migrant work­ers are recruit­ed) and senior advi­sor for the San­ta Mar­ta Group (Church and Law Enforce­ment Com­bat­ting Mod­ern Slavery)

Dr. Olivia Smith, Human Traf­fick­ing Spe­cial­ist, present­ly Project Lead, TIP Nation­al Action Plan (Traf­fick­ing In Per­sons Report), Bar­ba­dos, Amer­i­can Bar Asso­ci­a­tion Rule of Law Ini­tia­tive (ABA ROLI). She served for sev­er­al years in var­i­ous capac­i­ties with­in the Gov­ern­ment of Bar­ba­dos, the CARICOM Sec­re­tari­at (Caribbean Com­mu­ni­ty) and as Exec­u­tive Direc­tor of the Caribbean Anti-Human Traf­fick­ing Foundation

Bri­an Iselin, for­mer Aus­tralian sol­dier and fed­er­al agent, Founder of Gene­va-based Slave Free Trade, a non­prof­it work­ing on lever­ag­ing the might of the blockchain to rid the world of slave labor

Link to the vdeo

Feb­ru­ary 16, 2021 Webi­nar Report

 

WHERE DO WE STAND? — INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL PROSECUTION OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

 

PARTICIPANTS

  • Michel Veuthey
  • Kevin HYLAND
  • Olivia SMITH
  • Bri­an ISELIN
  • Mor­gane NICOT

 

 

INTRODUCTION — Michel VEUTHEY

 

  • This webi­nar is the first of 3 webi­na­rs on the inter­na­tion­al pros­e­cu­tion of human trafficking.
  • It focus­es on the imple­men­ta­tion of the Paler­mo Pro­to­col, 20 years after its adoption.

 

Kevin HYLAND

  • Like the fight against glob­al warm­ing, we must all com­mit to the fight against human traf­fick­ing on a glob­al scale.
  • Find­ings:
    • Today, there are 40 mil­lion peo­ple and 151 mil­lion chil­dren in forced labor or work­ing in unac­cept­able conditions.
    • The first leg­is­la­tion con­cern­ing these crimes dates back to 326 BC. This is not a new phenomenon.
    • This human traf­fick­ing is a real busi­ness, gen­er­at­ing 150 bil­lion dol­lars a year.
    • Many com­mit­ments have been made: UN pro­to­col, Coun­cil of Europe, EU direc­tives, OSCE com­mit­ments and guide­lines, UN human rights, SDG, G20, G7, leg­is­la­tion in most coun­tries of the world. But the crime continues.
    • Legal pro­ceed­ings are nec­es­sary but not suf­fi­cient to stop the phenomenon. 
      • They are very lim­it­ed: 9548 con­vic­tions against 40 mil­lion vic­tims. Only 498 con­vic­tions for forced labor. 99.98% impuni­ty rate.
      • Con­vic­tion times are par­tic­u­lar­ly long com­pared to oth­er crimes: immi­gra­tion prob­lem, wrong deci­sion-mak­er involved (e.g. in the UK, deci­sions are tak­en by the Home Office, even though it does not con­cern it.
    • Pro­pos­als:
      • We also need to think about demand in busi­ness models.
      • There is a need for strict con­trol over the sup­ply chain. Ex. Boohoo com­pa­ny in Leices­ter or the man­u­fac­ture of sur­gi­cal gloves in Malaysia.
      • At the nation­al lev­el: There is a need for part­ner­ships: civ­il soci­ety, NGOs, police, offi­cial bod­ies (health, hous­ing, edu­ca­tion, trans­port) with : 
        • Holis­tic think­ing about what can help the victim
        • Clar­i­fi­ca­tion of roles: the police have the tech­ni­cal means, but they must coop­er­ate with oth­er civ­il soci­ety orga­ni­za­tions (includ­ing reli­gious congregations).
        • a mul­ti-agency approach: courts and labour inspectorates
      • The Church has a place in this collaboration: 
        • San­ta Mar­ta group (formed by Pope Fran­cis in 2014) with col­lab­o­ra­tion between police chiefs, bish­ops and civ­il society.
        • It can offer hous­ing, support.
        • It pro­vides ser­vices and must there­fore be exem­plary in its sup­ply chain (cf. Arch­bish­op of Syd­ney’s approach)
        • It can use diplo­ma­cy, which it has done by sup­port­ing Goal 8 of the SDGs (Sus­tain­able Devel­op­ment Goals), to be achieved by 2030
      • In terms of gov­er­nance, the States must each take their respon­si­bil­i­ties with: 
        • Fis­cal, penal, etc. incen­tives to avoid this traffic
        • Strong and trans­par­ent pro­cure­ment systems
        • The estab­lish­ment of a new legal con­cept: dirty mon­ey, i.e. mon­ey taint­ed by mod­ern slav­ery with incen­tives not to use it.
        • Bet­ter con­trol over the inter­net to pre­vent trafficking.
        • An adjust­ment of legal tools (1926 Slav­ery Convention)
        • The gath­er­ing of inter­na­tion­al actors (UN, World Bank, World Food Program)

 

Dr. Olivia SMITH

  • Find­ings: 27 mil­lion peo­ple enslaved world­wide. The Paler­mo Pro­to­col was estab­lished to pre­vent, sup­press and pun­ish traf­fick­ers and to com­ple­ment the pro­to­cols on transna­tion­al orga­nized crime.
  • Analy­sis of the TIP Report (TIP Report, Traf­fick­ing in Per­sons Report, US) and : 
    • This inter­na­tion­al report is an annu­al report that out­lines the mea­sures gov­ern­ments are expect­ed to take to elim­i­nate human trafficking.
    • It clas­si­fies 188 coun­tries into 3 levels: 
      • Lev­el 1: max­i­mum mea­sure­ment level
      • Lev­el 2: Some coun­tries are tak­ing action but are not ful­ly compliant
      • Tier 3 Watch­list: some coun­tries are not ful­ly com­pli­ant but have made efforts
      • Lev­el 3: not real­ly complying
    • A tool used glob­al­ly to nego­ti­ate and encour­age States to pri­or­i­tize human trafficking.

 

  • Sit­u­a­tion in Cen­tral America: 
    • Impov­er­ished region, gang vio­lence and human traf­fick­ing. 3rd largest crime indus­try in the world. Source of migrants to the US
    • Well-estab­lished net­works in Guatemala, Hon­duras, El Sal­vador and Belize (impor­tant tran­sit point from Guatemala, Mex­i­co and the US border)
    • Nation­al and intra-region­al routes fol­low the eco­nom­ic path
    • Involve­ment of crim­i­nal gangs but also of indi­vid­u­als and large orga­ni­za­tions, immi­gra­tion ser­vices, police.
  • Sit­u­a­tion in the Caribbean: 
    • Region with dynam­ic migra­tion flows, coun­tries of ori­gin, tran­sit and destination.
    • Pol­i­cy ini­tia­tives: (2012) with CARICOM coun­tries, (2010) Caribbean Basin Secu­ri­ty Ini­tia­tive, (2020) U.S./Caribbean Mul­ti-Year Strategy
  • Sys­tem Gap: 
    • Tech­nol­o­gy: Knowl­edge of tech­nol­o­gy but lag­ging behind those who pros­e­cute traf­fick­ers in knowl­edge of these rapid­ly evolv­ing systems.
    • Legal tools :
      • Unit­ed Nations Con­ven­tion on Human Traf­fick­ing, Pre­ven­tion Pro­to­cols, Extra­or­di­nary Dec­la­ra­tion of Mala­ga, Law on the Strength­en­ing of the Com­mit­ment of the US and the North­ern Tri­an­gle, etc.
      • BUT nation­al leg­is­la­tions have not yet been reviewed OR no sig­nif­i­cant actions at nation­al level.
      • Lack of knowl­edge of inter­na­tion­al law by judges and courts.
      • In nation­al leg­is­la­tions, a vic­tim has to prove that he or she was a vic­tim. Very dif­fi­cult to prove.
      • Traf­fick­ing remains a silent crime. Real denial that traf­fick­ing exists.
    • Inter­na­tion­al level: 
      • Lack of region­al strat­e­gy: Exam­ple of Venezuela with more than 100,000 migrants in the Caribbean countries
      • The sit­u­a­tion is rein­forced by the COVID cri­sis, with migrants trapped in the Caribbean states and with greater opac­i­ty of actions, dur­ing the peri­od of confinement.
    • Nation­al level: 
      • Strength­en nation­al state legislation
      • Need for a vic­tim-cen­tered approach (with empowerment)
      • Deal­ing with pub­lic officials

 

 

Bri­an ISELIN: 

  • At the time of the rat­i­fi­ca­tion of the Paler­mo Pro­to­col in 2000, there was almost no fund­ing to fight human traf­fick­ing. Paler­mo was a hope, a shin­ing light for a moment. In 2021: a glob­al indus­try has developed.
  • Find­ings:
    • Lit­tle action oth­er than a pre­pon­der­ance of focus on law enforce­ment and crim­i­nal jus­tice respons­es. E.g., Aus­tralia focused 100% on sex­u­al exploita­tion, 100% on sup­ply-side measures.
    • Bud­gets have been allo­cat­ed to aware­ness cam­paigns, etc., but with­out regard to effectiveness.
    • Paler­mo allowed a par­a­digm shift with the empha­sis on human traf­fick­ing: a vic­tim can be a vic­tim of child labor, forced labor, slav­ery or servi­tude. Great com­plex­i­ty of situations.
    • Treaty focused on enforce­ment, pun­ish­ment, sup­ply reduction.
  • Reflect­ing on the demand from the obser­va­tion of oth­er illic­it markets: 
    • Vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty fac­tors are not the cause of the mar­ket. Just because peo­ple are poor before they are traf­ficked does not mean that pover­ty is the cause. They are push factors.
    • The mar­ket remains unchanged no mat­ter what is done with the sup­ply. Police actions against gangs dis­place traf­fick­ing but do not change mar­ket dynam­ics. Insuf­fi­cient police resources.
    • So we have to focus on the demand side, on the slave trade, like what Slave Free Trade does: pos­i­tive and behav­ioral solu­tions, reduc­ing the num­ber of jobs in the world where peo­ple are exploit­ed. ( Cf. Human Rights Infor­ma­tion Platform)

 

Mor­gane NICOT :

  • Inter­na­tion­al legal tool: 
    • Pro­to­col that is 20 years old and com­pletes a col­lab­o­ra­tive instru­ment to tack­le crimes, espe­cial­ly for law enforcement.
    • 147 sig­na­to­ries and 190 par­tic­i­pat­ing countries
  • For what purpose? 
    • To fight the crimes they are sup­posed to face, to solve the prob­lems the vic­tims are fac­ing, to ensure prevention.
    • It pro­vides a legal frame­work to com­bat impuni­ty. We need sev­er­al levers.
    • It pro­pos­es to define com­mon terms, which is not so easy.
    • Explain what this crime means, look­ing at the sup­ply chain (not just the end)
    • Recall that it is the respon­si­bil­i­ty of the States
    • Ini­ti­ate pub­lic-pri­vate partnerships.
  • Find­ings:
    • Gath­ered many coun­tries around the table, with a more holis­tic per­spec­tive on migration.
    • Need for law enforce­ment but also for civ­il society
    • Impact at nation­al, region­al and inter­na­tion­al level
    • UNODC report show the lev­el of crim­i­nal jus­tice response. That means: how many peo­ple have been iden­ti­fied as vic­tims, how many inves­ti­ga­tions, etc., and we see that there is more and more detec­tion of var­i­ous forms of exploitation.

 

Gen­er­al questions?

  • What is the role of the Inter­na­tion­al Crim­i­nal Tri­bunals (ICC) in pros­e­cut­ing human traf­fick­ing cases? 
    • Com­bat­ing state-spon­sored human trafficking
    • Encour­age inter­na­tion­al com­pa­nies to act, fight cor­rup­tion, iden­ti­fy vic­tims, etc…
    • Very slow process­es but ICCs can take excep­tion­al sanctions
    • Human traf­fick­ing is a transna­tion­al crime, so mul­ti­lat­er­al coop­er­a­tion must be strength­ened while tak­ing into account cul­tur­al realities.

 

  • What are the first steps to be tak­en in the fight against mod­ern slavery? 
    • Com­mu­ni­cate with peo­ple with reli­able, sim­ple information.
    • Deal­ing with cog­ni­tive dis­so­nance: Pro­vide infor­ma­tion and then a sim­ple action to take: indi­ca­tor on the NYC stock mar­ket. This helps in pur­chas­ing deci­sions and allows for boy­cotting cer­tain com­pa­nies. We need to give sim­ple actions to do that thou­sands of peo­ple can do. This is where action is possible.
    • Engage com­mu­ni­ties and indi­vid­u­als with what they can achieve.
    • Need for broad com­mu­ni­ty aware­ness: edu­ca­tion, pre­ven­tion. Need to address broad­er devel­op­ment and eco­nom­ic issues

 

 

CONCLUSION — Michel VEUTHEY

  • In 1997 and 1998, there were two major con­ven­tions on the ban­ning of anti-per­son­nel mines and for the ICC.
  • These con­ven­tions have brought togeth­er gov­ern­ments, inter­na­tion­al orga­ni­za­tions, NGOs, nation­al soci­eties and indi­vid­u­als: this is what needs to be done on the sub­ject of human trafficking.

 

 

 

 

ADLAUDATOSI INTEGRAL ECOLOGY FORUM WEBINARS

You access our webi­na­rs videos on: https://adlaudatosi.org/#course

 

Religious Helping Trafficking Victims along the Road of Recovery (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Religious Working In International Advocacy Against Human Trafficking (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Impact Of Human Trafficking On Health: Trauma (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Impact Of Human Trafficking On Health: Healing (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — Where Are We Now? (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — What can be done? (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

International Prosecution Of Human Trafficking — Best Practices (ON-DEMAND VIDEO WEBINAR)

Demand As Root Cause For Human Trafficking – Sex Trafficking & Prostitution

OUR MISSION:

THE PURPOSE IS TO SHARE BEST PRACTICES AND PROMOTE ACTIONS AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING.

WE MAKE AVAILABLE TO YOU GUIDES AND RESEARCH ON TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS FROM THE MOST RECOGNISED LEGAL AND OPERATIONAL ACTORS.

Human Trafficking — Interview with Prof. Michel Veuthey, Order of Malta — 44th UN Human Right Council 2020

POPE’S PAYER INTENTION FOR FEBRUARY 2020: Hear the cries of migrants victims of human trafficking

FRANCE — BLOG DU COLLECTIF “CONTRE LA TRAITE DES ÊTRES HUMAINS”

Church on the frontlines in fight against human trafficking

Holy See — PUBLICATION OF PASTORAL ORIENTATIONS ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING 2019

RIGHT TO LIFE AND HUMAN DIGNITY GUIDEBOOK

Catholic social teaching

Doctrine sociale de l’Église catholique

Register to our series of webinars adlaudatosi on Human Trafficking

 
 

You have successfully registered !